GW/ I haven’t proceeded any further for years, but recently (November, 2020) had an insight… MOST of the torque generated by such a wheel occurs in the middle third.
So the water ‘back pressure’ could be significantly reduced if the wheel ‘enters’ the reservoir at about 1/3 up from the bottom of the wheel, NOT at the bottom of the wheel. This would significantly reduce the back pressure without significantly reducing the wheel’s potential torque.
Spectro-analysis shows that HydrOxy contains monatomic hydrogen and oxygen but it’s only about 3% of the total volume.
Evidence indicates that HydrOxy also contains a significant volume of Electrically Expanded Water (ExW).
We theorize that ExW is a negatively charged (electron rich) cold plasma form of water.
Depending on the quality of the HydrOxy gas, ExW can be up to 30% of the total volume. Learn more at “What is Brown’s Gas”?
ExW is still water (hasn’t split into hydrogen and oxygen) but it’s water that’s soaked up electricity and become a gaseous form of water that is NOT water vapor or steam. If cooled, it does not condense. It only ‘condenses’ back into liquid water if it loses it’s electrons.
Plasma is the fourth state of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma) and is defined as an ‘ionized gas’ (has extra electrons).
ExW is water (H2O) in a gaseous form that has excess energy (in the form of bio-available electrons). It’s a plasma at room temperature so it’s a ‘cold’ plasma.
ExW forms in electrolyzers specifically designed to NOT separate the gasses. As per the video to the right:
ExW forms in the middle of the liquid, between the electrodes and if you insert a ‘membrane’ to separate the gases (like traditional electrolyzers do) then the ExW forming ‘effect’ (water absorbing electrons) doesn’t happen.
So the only way I know to make the ExW, is to make and keep all the gasses together (NO membrane)…
We can confirm the existence of and measure the volume of ExW in Brown’s Gas by drying the gas (to remove water moisture) and use mass spectrometry to see that a gaseous form of water (that is not water vapor or steam) is still there (it will not condense if cooled).
That’s the most direct way to confirm the existence of the ExW.
These tests were done independently of me in the 1990’s and I only recently (a couple of years ago) received the permission to post the results. They are shown in my 2017 TeslaTech Presentation.
ExW is what makes Brown’s Gas (aka HHO, HydrOxy, etc.) more effective for health application than using straight molecular hydrogen (H2). Because the body (and particularly bodies that are ill) NEEDS the energy (electrons) that the ExW provides. The ExW literally GIVES the body ENERGY it needs to heal.
Bodies that are ill usually have compromised energy generation systems and their energy reserves have been depleted. Adding energy INDEPENDENTLY of those systems allows the body to heal and re-start it’s own energy generation systems.
It’s good to give the body the food (hydrogen) it needs to heal, but it also helps if you give the body the ENERGY it needs to use the ‘food’ to heal.
It’s like any construction site. You can bring the concrete and lumber, but without electricity and fuel no machines can operate. The ExW provides the fuel the body needs to heal quicker.
Bodies that are ill usually have compromised energy generation systems and have used up their energy reserves. So the ExW is needed for best results.
Of course most people do not know about ExW.
The BEST (current) way to ‘measure’ the ExW is by inference. The machines produce too much gas.
So the gas production is ‘over-unity’ when you compare the electrical input to the gas production using Faraday Law. For example, the ER50 is 130% efficient. So this ‘extra gas’ is the ExW. We are not ‘breaking’ or ‘violating’ or ‘disproving’ Faraday Laws. The ExW is formed independently of the Faraday Equations.
When using spectroanlysis and chromaphotography the ExW shows up as ‘dry’ water vapor (it’s WATER in a gaseous form that does not condense).
Note: There are many people out there touting EZ water as the fourth state of water. This is incorrect. But it’s ‘caught on’ as per:
And when I say the ExW is the Fourth Phase of Water I’m not comparing ExW to (Professor Gerald Pollack’s) EZ water.
I am saying that ExW is an ACTUAL fourth Phase of Water.
Gerald Pollack’s EZ ‘water’ is an interface phenomenon. I’ve conversed with Gerald Pollack asking WHY he called EZ water the ‘Fourth Phase of Water’ in his literature and and he said
“We were trying to figure out a good name. The term “exclusion zone” (EZ) was first suggested, and it seems to have caught on; but, it refers to a “zone” rather than to a substance. So, it’s not ideal. Others call it H3O2, which is the putative chemical formula. That’s OK, but maybe somewhat arcane?”
He and I went on to confirm that EZ water was NOT ACTUALLY the fourth phase of water because
1. EZ water is H3O2, so it is not water, not H2O (any more than H2O2, hydrogen peroxide is water) and
2. EZ ‘water’ is not a plasma; the fourth phase of matter is plasma.
3. EZ water is a gel-like or semi-crystalline form of water. (I’d call it water phase 1.5 because it is in-between solid and liquid)
Both Gerald Pollack and I define actual water as H2O.
H2O as matter exists in four phases; solid (ice), liquid (water), gas (steam or water vapor) and plasma (ionized gas or ExW). Adding electrons (to make a negatively charged plasma) does not count as changing a molecule’s atoms, it’s simply a higher energy state of the same matter.
EZ water is an AMAZING discovery but is not the fourth phase of water (a plasma). It could be considered another ‘phase of water’ in that is a ‘phase of water’ that forms in certain conditions (water associated with hydrophilic material combined with infrared energy).
ExW is a negative plasma (extra electrons) form of water. It is water (still H2O) in a gaseous form that is not water vapor or steam (it does not condense when cooled).
Gerald Pollack and I have talked and agreed on this. ExW (water as plasma) is an ACTUAL fourth phase of water.
Making something from water, by adding or subtracting atoms, makes it ‘not water’, not H2O. EZ ‘water’ (H3O2) is a substance made from water by adding hydrogen and oxygen atoms… but so is hydrogen peroxide H2O2. No one would mistake hydrogen peroxide as ‘water’.
It turns out that the plasma form of water (ExW) is very healthful and synergistically increases the effectiveness of hydrogen by adding bio-available ENERGY to the body.
As far as hydrogen ‘kicking oxygen out of water’… that depends on the partial pressure gas laws and absorption capability of water. It’s true that if you feed pure hydrogen into water, it will ‘kick some oxygen out’.
But if you feed a mixed gas into water, the water will absorb the ALL the gasses in proportions according to the gas and absorption laws. Water will absorb much more oxygen than hydrogen (that’s why fish can breathe).
If hydrogen knocked out the oxygen, then why did these fish not only live (breathe), but grow to three times the size of their siblings in the same timeframe?
Two tanks, one bubbled with normal air, one bubbled with Brown’s Gas. Then the fish combined into the one tank for direct comparison.
These sorts of experiments prove beyond doubt that BG is healthful, with measurable and quantifiable results…
I work hard to make the safest and most practical BG electrolyzers on earth… And to shed light on miss-understandings and myth-conceptions.
Of course no one who knows Faraday Electrolysis would believe in ExW or the ‘line of bubbles’.
The ExW is formed ‘outside’ of the Faraday electrolysis, as a ‘side effect’ of the design of a Brown’s Gas electrolyzer.
ExW will not form in a traditional Faraday electrolyzer or in ‘modern’ versions like PEM.
I have video of the ‘line of bubbles’
I have spectrographic tests showing that ‘water’ still exists in the BG, AFTER water vapor has been removed.
ExW is plasma form of water that does NOT condense if cooled. I have ‘volume tests’ that show up to 50% more ‘gas’ production than should be possible using Faraday equations. See most of this in my 2017 Tesla Tech lecture.
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