Is this deliberate miss-information or just ignorant skeptics postulating/posturing?
I’ve seen several hexavalent chromium (aka chromium 6) comments online and personally feel that this is a good example of Vested Interest suppression.
Here’s an example of a ‘tester’ video. The ‘tester’ assumed that just because the fluid changed color, that hex chromium is present… Ignoring the observed fact that the color was totally in the wrong spectrum. The test was showing presence of something,
but not necessarily hex chromium.
At the very least, a proper scientific test would start by testing the WATER used to make up the electrolytic solution, since most water in the USA is ALREADY contaminated by Hex Chromium.
Then test the electrolyte solution BEFORE it is introduced to the stainless steel electrodes, to eliminate the possibility of Hex Chromium being in the substance being used as the catalyst AND to see if the test is even valid for electrolyte solutions (high acid or alkaline). I would also think that most tests like this one would require a neutral pH to be accurate.
Next, any testing protocol that assumes that some other electrode material (like titanium) would NOT produce the indicated reaction should PROVE it by testing the solution from those electrodes too (to see that you don’t get a positive for hex chromium)!
I have yet to see a proper test that truly indicates hex chromium presence.
Vested Interest is VERY good at starting rumors that prevent the public from taking advantage of technologies that would lose them billions of dollars.
In this case, they simply go on a few forums and mention that perhaps because stainless steel has chromium in it, that people should be concerned that there may be hexavalent chromium formed in the electrolyzers that use stainless steel for electrodes.
Or maybe some armchair skeptic just wondered if it’d be possible, and come up with weird theories and/or justifications of how it’d be possible, again with NO SCIENTIFIC testing… In this case, we again have an example of Vested Interest suppression by route of talking heads ignorant of actual facts.
Vested Interest has often gone to considerable lengths to miss-educate ‘educated’ people in public personas and these become the talking heads that the public believes.
Here’s an example of the many lies propagated by Vested Interest miss-education, in this case for automobile mechanics (click).
the planted nudge now becomes a rumor or myth that can’t be shaken because people have watched Erin Brockovich
and know that hexavalent chromium is very bad for health (click) (click) (click).
The Vested Interest knows that they don’t need to prove the rumor false. The onus to prove the rumor false falls on the shoulders of ‘fringe science’ that is easy to discredit. I know this issue intimately because, as an inventor, I CONSTANTLY work on the fringe.
My point is that just because you’ve read or heard some theory (even from scientists) doesn’t make it true.
Let’s walk through some actual facts and my experiences/opinions.
1. I haven’t seen any scientific proof that hexavalent chromium is formed in electrolyzers that use stainless steel plates.
Here is one article that might be relevant, except that (as it points out) the quantities would be minute; and would (as I point out below) stay in the electrolyzer and be buffered by the lye solution.
For this to happen, even this minutely, the stainless steel would have to corrode, which does not happen in our electrolyzers (designed to last for decades).
2. Some people have attempted to test for hexavalent chromium but their tests were inconclusive because they really didn’t know how to do the tests properly. Frankly, neither do I; but there are lots of independent labs that do know how and NONE of them have submitted reports of hex chromium in electrolyzer electrolytes that have been used since Michael Faraday ‘invented’ electrolysis ~ 1830.
3. Stainless steel is a ‘food grade’ material, used everywhere in industry and is totally compatible with fluids containing lye (NaOH). In fact, NaOH is RECOMMENDED as a solution to clean stainless steel in food grade applications.
4. Lye (NaOH) is used in many applications of the food industry and comes in a ‘food grade’.
5. Lye solution is a common cleaning fluid for stainless steel pipes.
6. If simple association of lye with stainless steel would cause formation of hexavalent chromium, you can be quite certain we’d have heard about it long before now.
7. In all the OSHA and similar reports I’ve looked at, there is no reference to hexavalent chromium formation in any conditions similar to what exist in a Brown’s Gas electrolyzer, examples: (click) (click) (click).
8. The chromium in stainless steel is NOT hexavalent.
9. It takes very high temperatures (like melting of the steel) to assist the stainless steel chromium to become hexavalent.
10. Stainless steel plates are ‘neutral’ and unreactive (they do NOT normally oxidize or degrade) during ‘normal’ electrolysis (with electrolytes like lye (NaOH).
The above statement is assuming people are not ‘over-driving’ the electrolysis by having a high amperage density on the electrodes. If amperage density causes the electrolysis cell to go above the electro-deposition voltage of the cell, then actual metal can be pulled from the positive electrode (oxidizing anode) and is then (usual electrolysis) deposited on the negative electrode (cathode).
Even so, I haven’t seen any SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE that electro-deposition (essentially electroplating) causes hex chromium to form.
11. An ‘oxide layer’ on the anode is normal and is NOT considered to be ‘oxidation’ of the anode. Electrolysis of water NORMALLY creates oxygen on the anode so oxidation of some anode materials is inherent and the oxidized material usually stays ‘attached’ to the anode (does not go out into solution). Nickel and chromium do NOT usually oxidize during normal water electrolysis. Chromium would be an excellent anode material, if it wasn’t so expensive!
12. High pH solutions acts as buffers to absorb and neutralize hexavalent chromium. 25% lye (NaOH) solution has a very high pH. This would automatically render most tests for hex chromium invalid, inadequate and inconclusive.
13. Even if hexavalent chromium is somehow formed, the pH of the electrolyte would act as a buffer to absorb it; thus neutralize/mitigate its health issues. Here are a sampling of the many reports on mitigating/neutralizing hexavalent chromium (click) (click) (click) (click) (click) (click). Reports like this are easy to find by anyone who actually looks.
14. Electrolyzers split water into hydrogen and oxygen (and in our case also make BG). Assuming you are using pure lye and pure water, those gasses are the only ones that form in and leave the electrolyzer. They are non-toxic.
Hex Chromium is NOT a gas and would not come out with the Brown’s Gas, even if it were in the electrolyte.
15. I have several spectrographic analysis reports of Brown’s Gas and NONE of them show anything that could even remotely be construed as hexavalent chromium.
16. Solids/impurities that were in the water or which are formed in the electrolyzer STAY in the electrolyzer. So even if some sort of poison was to form, it’s very unlikely that any solid or liquid impurity in the electrolyzer would present a health risk.
17. Brown’s Gas (aka BG or HHO) that is formed in an electrolyzer has (according to reports from my customers) been curing cancer (and many other maladies).
18. I’m thinking that if BG contained something that caused cancer that I wouldn’t be hearing reports of CURED cancer.
19. I’ve been drinking BG bubbled water since June of 2005. I used to catch colds in the winter and now that only happens when I stop drinking the BG bubbled water.
I’ve been breathing BG gas directly (for up to an hour a day) since March of 2016 and have noted ONLY positive health effects.
20. ObamaCare, for example, is a program that uses government influence to set up a perfect money making environment for big Pharma and the medical establishment, who have a VESTED INTEREST in keeping you sick and suppressing any kind of actual cures for disease.
21. These Vested Interest WANT YOU SICK (click) because they make money when you are sick. The longer they can keep you sick, the more money they make. Our ‘health-care’ system has effectively been perverted into a ‘sick-profit’ system that is DESIGNED to mitigate symptoms instead of cure disease. Mitigating the symptoms causes people to think they are well, as the disease continues to progress until it kills them.
22. There are MANY inexpensive and effective cures for most diseases that are actively and often viciously suppressed by the medical community.
People are just becoming aware of the health benefits of BG (HHO) and we are now seeing the Vested Interest doing their suppression of this technology. The hex chromium myth is one of the rumors designed to cause people to shy away from BG(HHO).
23. Note that while Doctors are usually well intentioned people, they have a Vested Interest sponsored education, which trains them to be drug pushers. They are specifically NOT trained to cure disease and can actually lose their license to practice if they DO start curing diseases.
24. Lye solution (the electrolyzer’s electrolyte) is totally environmentally compatible. Lye is made from wood ashes, which form during forest fires. When a rain comes after a forest fire, tons of lye are washed into streams and lakes. Nature absorbs and uses the lye to propagate itself.
25. Lye has also traditionally (for hundreds of years) been used as a household drain cleaner and to make soap. There is NO issue about pouring the lye solutions down the drain.
In conclusion: I believe the hexavalent chromium rumor to be a myth propagated in one way or another by the Vested Interest; now that BG (HHO) has become a potential threat to their billions of dollars in ‘health’ income.
FAQ: Have been doing some more research and found out about hexavalent chromium produced? from electrolysis of stainless steel https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/59305/production-of-hexavalent-chromium-during-electrolysis-using-a-stainless-steel-as What are your thoughts on this?
Hexavalent chromium cannot be produced with our electrolyzers, because the necessary voltage doesn’t exist. If anyone anywhere says that hexavalent chromium is produced with alkaline electrolysis, they are seriously mistaken.
And one of the comments said that dumping lye (NaOH) down the drain is illegal. That’s not entirely true. Small amounts of lye are not only allowed but encouraged because MOST drain cleaners are mostly lye AND the alkaline helps neutralize the acids in the sewage.
Further, NaOH is TOTALLY NATURAL to the environment. One of the major ways lye is ‘made’ is to rinse water through wood ashes, then evaporate off the water, leaving the lye behind.
In other words, when there is a forest fire, TONS of lye is created, which flows (using rain) into the soils and waterways. Lye is NEEDED by all living things. Small amounts of Lye is not considered toxic waste.
Debate with Jim Wilson…
Browns’s Gas Spectroscopy
Also note that I paid $35 to see this study, so I’m assuming that posting it in public view would contravene copyright intentions.
All impurities will, over time, concentrate in the electrolyzer.
But none of us know ‘everything’ and I feel we’d do well to cooperate.
For example, MY designs of electrolyzers can produce Brown’s Gas at > 0.9 watt-hour per SATP liter of gas produced. Few can do that.