I can’t yet say. There are too many variables.
For example: the efficiency of the electrolyzer. For any given fuel volume there will be an optimum volume of BG to use as a combustion enhancement catalyst. I have found (see HyZor Technology book) that a law of diminishing returns applies. So for the first amp of BG production (on any given electrolyzer) you get the most gains. The next amp gets less gains, etc. until peak (peak varies with engine and electrolyzer efficiency), and then additional amperage actually LOSES mileage. A lot of people are in that range, not getting optimum gains, because they are assuming that if a little BG is good, a lot is better; and it’s not PRACTICALLY true.
The answer is somewhere in a balance of amperage (thus BG production) and the efficiencies with which BG is produced and used.
Note: I idled a 140ci engine TOTALLY on BG at a rate of 3000 liters/hour (see BG video 2). My average electrolyzer efficiency at the time was 3 watthours/liter, so I was using 9 kWh (from the Grid) to idle an engine for an hour in my shop. (It ran amazingly smoothly) I think if I had made ignition timing adjustments and raised the compression of the engine, I could have significantly reduced the BG consumption.
My point is that we are dealing with two different philosophies and which we concentrate on is totally dependent on electrolyzer efficiency.
The first philosophy is using BG as catalytic combustion enhancement.
As long as the electrolyzer can’t make enough BG to actually run the engine (when powered by the engine) then catalytic combustion enhancement of your fossil fuel is the ONLY practical avenue. Here is proof that BG assists carbon-fuel combustion, download PDF here.
Efficiency is the key here, because actual fuel mileage gains seriously depend on the electrolyzer efficiency. It takes a LOT of fuel to make electricity (most people have NO idea how much).
Here’s an example; part 1: Assuming the gasoline engine is 25% efficient, the alternator belt drive 90%, the alternator 55%, electrolyzer 60% (overall efficiency of energy conversion is 100*0.25*0.9*0.55*0.60 = 7.4%); then for each watt of electricity produced by the alternator took (100/7.4) 13.5 watts of fuel. The resulting BG needs to increase overall engine efficiency by 13.5 watts for every watt of BG produced before there will be ANY gain in fuel mileage.
So if we look at our efficiency bell curve, it will peak (for these conditions) when the overall engine efficiency does NOT increase by more than 13.5 watts of fuel per watt of BG produced.
Example part 2: Assuming we change NO other efficiencies in the engine (I definitely recommend making every efficiency upgrade possible but for our example we’ll hold to one variable) and ‘just’ increase the efficiency of the electrolyzer to 100% (which we have done and may be doing better). So the engine is 25% efficient, the alternator belt drive 90%, the alternator 55%, electrolyzer 100% (overall efficiency of energy conversion is 100*0.25*0.9*0.55*1 = 12.4%); then for each watt of electricity produced by the alternator took (100/12.4) 8 watts of fuel. The resulting BG needs to increase overall engine efficiency by 8 watts for every watt of BG produced before there will be ANY gain in fuel mileage.
So if we look at our efficiency bell curve (see the HyZor Technology Book), it will peak (for these conditions) when the overall engine efficiency does NOT increase by more than 8 watts of fuel per watt of BG produced.
Electrolyzer efficiency significantly affects how much BG is ‘optimum’, in a ‘feedback’ kind of loop. As the overall engine efficiency increases, the amount of fuel required to produce a watt of BG goes down (engine efficiency rises) further reducing the wattage of fuel needed to produce the BG.
Example part 3: So the engine is now 30% efficient, the alternator belt drive 90%, the alternator 55%, electrolyzer 100% (overall efficiency of energy conversion is 100*0.30*0.9*0.55*1 = 14.9%); then for each watt of electricity produced by the alternator took (100/14.9) 6.7 watts of fuel. The resulting BG needs to increase overall engine efficiency by 6.7 watts for every watt of BG produced before there will be ANY gain in fuel mileage.
So if we look at our efficiency bell curve, it will peak (for these conditions) when the overall engine efficiency does NOT increase by more than 6.7 watts of fuel per watt of BG produced.
Each efficiency gain, wherever applied, affects the entire system in a dynamic balance; which is one of the reasons I can’t answer the question: “1. How much BG does any given engine need or can effectively and efficiently use per liter of engine displacement.” The answer depends on several variables, which change with every application.
My rule of thumb, with my HyZors, is1 amp of BG for each liter of engine displacement.
This recommendation is based on:
1. The average ‘reserve capacity’ of most alternator systems (about 3 amps per liter of engine displacement). Greater amperage draw than this (for the HyZor) starts to create issues with the ability of the charging system to keep a battery fully charged (particularly in winter with short vehicle runs) and I have to assume that the electrolyzer isn’t the only ‘after-market’ load on the alternator.
2. Absolutely keeping the customer’s gains on the ‘most gains’ side of the efficiency bell curve. The first few amps gives the greatest gain. So typically, my HyZors are getting the same gains that found by other designs that use 10x the amperage.
3. As we increase electrolyzer efficiency, the volume of BG per amp rises, which will further increase customer’s fuel mileage without causing excessive stress on the charging system.
In the end, I want to make it possible for the customer to make informed choice about how much BG to produce, with the ability to vary the production to desire.
More reasons I can’t give an actual ‘volume of BG’ in any given application include:
Amps make Brown’s Gas (BG). There is traditionally a direct relationship of amps to gas production in an electrolyzer, EXCEPT with making BG. When making BG there’s also Electrically Expanded Water (ExW) produced, so there’s an additional gas volume (that extra gas makes BG electrolysis seem over-unity according to Faraday equations).
Gas production (volume of gas) is hard to measure correctly without very expensive equipment, so I give people an ‘amperage’ rule of thumb; which is accurate for MY electrolyzers only!
Generally the amperage and thus BG production (in my electrolyzers) should be about 1 amp per liter of engine displacement.
Gas production will vary depending on the electrolyzer design (more or less ExW), which is another reason I hesitate to give actual gas volume as a ‘rule of thumb’.
The more ExW you can produce (as a percentage of the BG), the less gas (BG) volume you need to get your mileage gains.
The ‘magic’ is in the ExW, not the hydrogen (H2). So if you have an electrolyzer that produces a larger quantity of ExW, then you do not need as much gas volume (and thus use less amperage) to get your optimum gains. My electrolyzers get the same gains as ‘others’ that use 10x the amperage.
Some engines will require more amperage for optimum fuel savings, some less. My 1983 Honda Civic Hatchback with 1.5 liter engine gets it’s best gain using only 0.95 amp.
The second philosophy of using BG is Water As Fuel.
This can only be possible when the electrolyzer efficiency is greater than 400% (this will allow an engine to ‘self-run’ on water).
It can only be practical if the electrolyzer efficiency is 4000% (this will allow the engine to have the excess power needed to be of practical use).
Since I know of no electrolyzer technology that is 4000% efficient, I choose to concentrate on the combustion enhancement philosophy discussed above.
Q ~ How much BG is enough for my vehicle?
I can’t yet say. There are too many variables.