Updated May 19, 2012
This information supersedes ALL other information in HyZor Assembly Instructions! This is the latest and most accurate information, which is what these Resources are supposed to accomplish; rapid, up to date information.
1. Number of cells:
Decide on the number of cells your should have HyZor BEFORE you start cutting parts.
You will want to optimize your HyZor for your application.
Generally, the three things you need to know are:
1. Your engine size.
2. How long does your engine generally run?
3. Are you going to heat your HyZor? (see the HyZor heating document)
I’ll give you some parameters to help you decide how many cells to use.
Generally, designing for more cells is good because more cells adds a ‘voltage‘ requirement to the ‘load’ (adds ‘natural’ resistance to the HyZor electrolyzer so it becomes ‘naturally’ amperage limiting. This is good because you eliminate the need for amperage control electronics.
BUT extra cells reduce the volume of BG because each cell adds a voltage in series (between 1.8 and 2.4 volts per cell depending on cell conditions of electrolyte type, electrolyte concentration, electrolyte temperature, cell design, voltage waveforms, etc.). Adding voltage requirement increases the HyZor’s electrical resistance. Increased resistance reduces amperage, which reduces BG.
Not creating enough BG for your engine negates this entire process, you won’t get the gains you should. So having lots of cells can make the system simpler, but too many will prevent you from getting the full benefits of BG.
BUT… creating too much BG will ALSO make your engine burn more fuel. See the ‘full version’ of this document for more information on BG’s catalytic effect on combustion vs. parasitic losses. The key take-away: BG is a catalyst, NOT a fuel!
I start with the engine size because that gives me AMPS needed. I use the rule of thumb of 1 amp per liter of engine size (the actual gas production varies depending on # of cells but is consistent with AMPS). Amps make BG! No need to try to measure actual gas production in my HyZor designs, because we have world-class efficiency (maximum BG produced per amp). You only need to monitor the amperage to know you have the right volume of BG for your engine size. Obviously every engine is different so it pays to experiment with more and less amperage to find YOUR optimum.
All these recommendations assume a 2″ diameter HyZor design.
If your engine is UNDER 1.5 liter, then the 7 cell pack is for you.
If your engine is 1.5 liter and up to 4 liter, then the 6 cell pack is your choice. Anything over 3 liter should have a heated HyZor or go to the 5 cell option.
If your engine is 3 liter and up to 6 liter then the 5 cell pack is correct. Anything over 5 liter should use the heated HyZor option or go to a 4 cell HyZor.
If your engine is 6 liter and up to 8 liter then the 4 cell pack will work. Anything over 7 liter should use the heated HyZor option or go to 3″ diameter HyZor design.
Larger engines than 7 liters should use a 3″ HyZor with larger plates and terminals, to handle larger amperages. We do not currently make a 3″ HyZor kit, but are designing one. You can, of course, run multiple HyZors to reach the needs of any given engine size.
In any of the above options, if your amperage in operation exceeds 1 amp per liter of engine displacement, then you should limit the amperage using an amperage limiting circuit. Circuits that limit amperage using Pulse Width Modification are, barely, acceptable to me and are easily obtained from eBay.
Personally I prefer to use hall-effect amperage limiting and I show you how to build your own hall-effect amperage limiting circuit in the HyZor Technology book. Hall-effect absolutely locks the amperage where PWM allows the amperage to increase as the HyZor heats up (generally not a lot though, which is why I, barely, accept it. I abandoned PWM for amperage control back in the mid 90’s when I developed hall-effect circuits.
If you were luck enough to buy a version A HyZor, then your circuit board already has the circuits on it for the hall-effect option. You only need to populate the board with the correct components, which are detailed in the HyZor Technology book.
ANYbody that limits amperage by reducing the electrolyte simply don’t know how to make an efficient electrolyzer and should be avoided. They don’t know enough to help you optimize your mileage.
Pulsing TIP: While I design for simplicity, using what’s known as ‘bulk force’ or straight DC voltage… it is actually more efficient to PULSE the amperage (current) to the electrolyzer.
For optimum efficiency during electrolysis, you need to get the bubbles (gas) off the plates. Liquid electrolyte needs to actually contact the plates to have ‘active’ electrolysis taking place. Surface covered by gas is NOT active and reduces the ‘active’ area, increasing amperage density (which increases required voltage) and making the electrolysis less efficient.
Pulsing the current allows time for the bubbles to get off the plates so the next batch can be made at a more efficient (lower) voltage.
So all of the more efficient electrolyzers use pulsation of some kind.
I tell you this tip because, for higher efficiency AND control of amperage, you might want to opt for a ‘higher volume’ design of HyZor (fewer cells) and control the amperage with a PWM or hall-effect circuit.
Waveform variations also help increase efficiency, but that’s entirely another subject 🙂
Heating the HyZor is ALWAYS a good idea because it is more efficient when it is hot. Heat reduces the electrolyte resistance which reduces the cell voltage (assuming the amperage stays the same) this equals higher wattage efficiency. In other words, you make more BG with the SAME electricity. This is literally ‘free energy‘ because you are increasing BG production with ‘waste heat’ that the engine is throwing away.
Heating the HyZor also, if you allow more amperage to flow, increases BG production in any given sized electrolyzer. Again, you can heat your HyZor and then control the amperage with a PWM or hall-effect circuit for increased efficiency. Any such increase in efficiency will increase fuel economy.
It takes the HyZor over an hour to reach its maximum operating temperature. If you are mostly using your vehicle for short trips, it’s a REALLY good idea to heat your HyZor.
2. Plate Modification:
Any HyZor that is going to operate over 6 amps should have the gas-hole in the plates (currently 1/8″) modified to 1/4″.
Also, if your plate has only one flat-side, it’s a good idea to make the other side flat too; to improve the flow of liquid around the plates and assure optimum cell liquid levels.
3. Close the gap:
With cell tubes design of cell packs (as opposed to threaded plug) the rings need to be cut so that there is ¼” ring sticking out one end of the pack (the other end flush); to compensate for the ‘extra’ room between the end of the 2” tube and the inner side of the end-cap (the ring will slide past the tube and up against the cap.
Not compensating for this gap has caused previous HyZors to have ‘loose’ plates, which could rotate and cause the HyZor to become non-functional.
When cutting the Cell Tube to 2 ¾”, the total length of ‘pack space’ (including the cap-gap) is 3.054”. So the width of the plates and the width of the rings needs to equal 3.054”.
It is better for the rings to be ‘slightly’ wider, (because you can smooth the extra off after assembling the cell-pack) than too narrow because you do not want loose plates.
If you reach the end and your last ring is short of flush with the tube, it is OK to make a ‘wider’ ring to come flush. Exact cell widths are not critical in this HyZor design.
I now assemble my HyZor cell packs from the outside in. I put the terminal plate in the cap, glue the cell tube into the cap and then insert the rings and plates. Then I KNOW that the rings fully take up the space and the plates are tight.
Plates are currently 0.0235” wide.
To build a 4 cell-pack, you’d use 3 plates and 4 rings, the rings cut to 0.7458”.
To build a 5 cell-pack, you’d use 4 plates and 5 rings, the rings cut to 0.58” (just over 9/16”). Our fully assembled HyZors use a 5 cell configuration.
To build a 6 cell-pack, you’d use 5 plates and 6 rings, the rings cut to 0.4894”.
To build a 7 cell-pack, you’d use 6 plates and 7 rings, the rings cut to 0.4161.
4. Don’t break the seal:
Our HyZors use hot glue to seal the threads of the terminal bolts coming out of the end-caps and tower. If the bolts get turned once the hot glue has hardened, the seal is likely to be compromised and a lye leak will happen. The lye shows up as a white powder because the water evaporates away once the solution gets out of the HyZor.
I use a ‘double nut’ system to make sure the bolts don’t get moved during the installation of the terminal wires. Hold the inner nut with a thin 3/8″ wrench (they are known as ‘ignition’ wrenches) while you tighten the outer nut. If you don’t have an ignition wrench, a pair of needle-nose plyers will work if you are careful.
We have upgraded the HyZor to also include a rubber o-ring in the seal of the terminal plates to the end-caps; this virtually eliminates leaks with a ‘double’ seal of the o-ring between the terminal plate and the end-cap and the hot glue in the threads. The tower terminal bolt still relies on just the hot glue, so be extra careful with it.
5. Sealing the threads:
When sealing the threads of the hose fittings and the HyZor top-cap, use ONLY teflon tape. Paste-type pipe sealants use a substance that reacts with the lye and causes severe foaming. Foaming drastically reduces the efficiency of the HyZor and causes lye to go out the ‘gas-out’ tube, into your air cleaner.
Wrap the teflon tape in the direction you screw the fitting in, so that the end of the tape is tightened into the threads instead of being pushed out of the threads.
Depending on the thickness of your tape, wrap only enough to get a good seal. Too much tape will just cause the tape to get pushed out of the threads. Vary the amount of tape to get the seal just before the fitting is turned to the position you need… to line up for hoses, etc. Do NOT tighten plastic fittings too much; you’ll be pleasantly surprised that they only need a ‘finger’ resistance to be sealed (wrenches are NOT needed).
6. Pressure Relief Tubes (PRTs)
I have updated all the HyZor kits to include PRTsHere are instructions to add Pressure Relief Tubes (PRT) to your electrolyzer. PRT helps gas be ‘relieved’ from the cell tubes MUCH easier than the non-PRT design. This assures that liquid level in the cells does not drop as far (particularly under larger gas production) and thus the plate surfaces do not become uncovered (remain active for efficiency). PRTs also mitigate the liquid level rise in the tower (liquid level doesn’t rise as far) because the liquid is staying in the cell tubes.
The ‘fix’ is an upgrade called Pressure Relief Tubes (PRTs).
With the pressure relief tubes in place, the liquid level pressure in the tower tends to push liquid into the cells and the gas can go out either into the tower directly (like usual) OR out the tube on the end, which ends up ABOVE the tower liquid level, so there is additional pressure relief for the gas and a net positive liquid flow into the cells.
This upgrade works VERY well, so well in fact that it’ll become a standard for my electrolyzers. It allows for MUCH higher gas production with virtually no worries that the cells will ever empty of fluid. It only takes about 20 minutes to do the fix, with simple tools and inexpensive parts.
The picture below shows a ‘prototype’ ER50 electrolyzer, where I first tested the PRTs.The fittings are 1/8″ FPT to 3/8″ barbed PE fittings. I used some spares from some inline fuel filters (they come with various sized fittings to fit different sized fuel lines). If your hardware store doesn’t have them, check out your automotive supply store. You can also get them online; here’s one example:
I used 3/8″ ID (1/2″ OD) vinyl tubing (bought at hardware store). Polyethylene (PE) tubing would be more durable but PE tubing is translucent and I wanted to see what was going on inside. Vinyl tubing will last quite awhile and is easy to replace.
IF YOU ARE RETROFITTING PRTs onto your HyZor:To find the spot to drill, I put a ‘sticky’ paper on the top of the cells that I could see and carefully marked each plate distance, so I could then move the sticky over the endcap and ‘know’ where the cell plates are. I marked the center of the next to last cell (the very last cell is under the curve of the cap and I didn’t want to drill into the curve).
I then drilled (started with 1/8″ drill bit and then an 11/32″) exactly in the center of the cells. The tower holes were a bit tricky, I had to slightly offset the one on the ‘wire’ side, because I didn’t want to drill into the the tower wire. Take care as you drill to prevent plastic from falling into the electrolyzer and drill slowly as you break through, in case you catch the edge of a plate. It’s OK to rub up against a plate or move it slightly if you need to. You do drill through both the electrolyzer shell and the spacer ring.
Then I tapped the holes for 1/8″ NPT (National Pipe Taper). The end of the tap fits down between the plates. Be careful how deep you tap, you want the threads to go tight BEFORE the fitting is entirely screwed in.
NOTE: NPT is my preferred thread for fittings because the threads DO tighten into themselves, assuring a positive seal. However, I’m aware that in some parts of the world NPT taps and fittings are hard to find and/or expensive. It is possible to use straight threads, just be sure they are sealed well with the appropriate washer, o-ring or gasket. If trying to seal the threads, do NOT use liquid thread sealant, the chemical that makes the sealant liquid causes EXTREME foaming problem in the electrolyzer (is NOT compatible with the electrolyte). Seal the threads with hot glue (use a hot air blower to keep the glue liquid as you screw in the fitting), or some sort of electrolyte compatible epoxy.
I used 1/8″ NPT to 3/8″ barbed PE fittings. Remember to seal the fitting threads with teflon tape (or epoxy), NOT any type of paste (or liquid) pipe sealant. Pipe sealants contain chemicals that cause the electrolyte to foam.
Once installed, the 1/8″ plastic NPT fitting did not quite go through the thickness of the endcap and pipe, so it works great to ‘relieve’ excess gas pressure and allow a positive liquid flow from the tower to the ends of the electrolyzer.
I used 3/8″ ID transparent vinyl hose and it’ll work for awhile; better to use PE hose it’s stiffer and translucent but is more compatible with hot lye solution. I used plastic zip ties to hold the hoses in place; which also seems to work pretty well (no leaks).
I tried to be really careful to prevent bits of plastic from falling into the cells but some got in anyway. They floated out with the liquid and I cleaned them up later, once they reached the tower and floated around on the top of the liquid.
If you are assembling a HyZor from scratch,then Don’t drill the PRT holes AFTER stuffing. Use THIS PROCEDURE to drill the holes BEFORE stuffing: 1. Glue the endcap onto the cell tube.2. Drill and tap the hole for the PRT fitting into the endcap. Using this technique you do not need to be concerned about the hole lining up with any particular cell.3. Clean out any plastic bits.4. Stuff the cell tubes with rings and plates; putting the ring gap (at least 1/4″ wide) at the TOP, above the gas hole (NOTE: if you will be going for higher gas production it helps to drill the gas hole out to 1/4″).5. Glue the cell tubes into the tower Tee (which already has the neutral zone assembly installed. Glue in the ‘solid’ side first, the side that doesn’t have the smaller ‘floating’ neutral zone plate. Note: If your neutral zone doesn’t already have this modification, drill a 1/8″ hole into the bottom third of the neutral zone plates, to help fluid flow into the cell tubes.